Exchange Library

Internal Revenue Code Section 1031

Under Internal Revenue Code (IRC) section 1031, no gain or loss is recognized when companies sell business or investment property and acquire property that is like-kind. A transaction that is structured as a tax-deferred exchange is generally referred to as a "like-kind exchange" or an "LKE". Equipment dealers, car rental companies, and other organizations that routinely dispose of business assets can realize substantial benefits from an ongoing program of exchanges (referred to as an LKE Program).

Internal Revenue Service Regulations: IRC §1031

Like-Kind Exchange: Additional Rules for Exchanges of Personal Property and for Exchanges of Multiple Properties

This document contained final regulations relating to exchanges of personal property and multiple properties under section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code. The regulations affect persons who exchange personal property or multiple properties. The regulations are necessary to provide persons who exchange  these properties with the guidance necessary to comply with the law.

The final regulations are effective for exchanges occurring on or after April 11, 1991.

Section 1031 Tax Deferred Exchanges - A Review of the Final Regulations

Tax deferred exchanges of real estate have been recognized by the Internal Revenue Code since the 1920s. A variety of factors have converged the past several years leading to a dramatic increase in the popularity of tax deferred exchanges as an alternative to real property sales.

Like-Kind Classification Codes

Depreciable tangible personal property is exchanged for property of a "like-kind" under section 1031 if the property is exchanged for property of a like-kind or like class. Depreciable tangible personal property is of a like class to other depreciable tangible personal property if the exchanged properties are either within the same General Asset Class or within the same Product Class. The attached document contains both the General Asset Class (GAC) and the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes that are pertinent to tax-deferred personal property exchanges.

Rev. Proc. 2000-37: Reverse Exchanges

Since the promulgation of the final regulations under § 1.1031(k)-1, taxpayers have engaged in a wide variety of transactions, including “parking” transactions, to facilitate reverse like-kind exchanges. Parking transactions typically are designed to “park” the desired replacement property with an accommodation party until such time as the taxpayer arranges for the transfer of the relinquished property to the ultimate transferee in a simultaneous or deferred exchange. Once such a transfer is arranged, the taxpayer transfers the relinquished property to the accommodation party in exchange for the replacement property, and the accommodation party then transfers the relinquished property to the ultimate transferee.

Rev. Proc. 2003-39: Like-Kind Exchange Programs

Safe harbor rules are provided under section 1031 of the Code, which allows for deferral of gain realized on a like-kind exchange of property, with respect to programs involving ongoing exchanges of tangible personal property using a single intermediary (“LKE Programs”). For purposes of this revenue procedure, an "LKE Program" is an ongoing program involving multiple exchanges of 100 or more properties. Although LKE Programs may differ in various ways, an LKE Program must have all of the following characteristics:

Rev. Proc. 2008-16: Exchanges of Vacation Homes and Rental Property

This revenue procedure provides a safe harbor under which the Internal Revenue Service (the “Service”) will not challenge whether a dwelling unit qualifies as property held for productive use in a trade or business or for investment for purposes of § 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code.

Rev. Proc. 2010-14: Safe Harbor Treatment for Failed 1031 Exchanges Involving QI Defaults

Rev. Proc. 92-91: Air Emission Allowances

The purpose of the Act is to reduce the impact of acid rain through a program of annual allocations of sulfur dioxide emission allowances ("allowances") to certain fossil-fuel-powered combustion devices ("units"), such as boilers, owned by electricity generating companies ("utilities"). The program will be administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (the "EPA") with enforcement beginning in 1995.

IRS Private Letter Ruling 200236026

A, a wholly owned subsidiary of B, is engaged in the business of m. A, a calendar year taxpayer, files a consolidated income tax return as part of an affiliated group of corporations. All of the corporations in the affiliated group use the accrual method of accounting.

A’s business requires it to periodically dispose of certain properties and/or equipment, some of which is co-owned by other parties, and reinvest in like-kind property. A seeks to characterize the transactions as non-taxable exchanges under § 1031.


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